Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority or banks; managing transactions and the issuing of bitcoins is carried out collectively by the network.
There are many comprehensive tutorials which explain how Bitcoin works , and what it does, as well as it's role in the society, and politics.
One can easily learn all about Bitcoin on MOOCs and just by searching for tutorials.
However, the best way to get your head around Bitcoin is to join your local Bitcoin Meetup, though talking to people, from whom apart from technology, you can learn how to safely use, store and trade Bitcoin.
YOUTUBE Lx9zgZCMqXE How Bitcoin works under the hood
This Wiki is focused on less popularised applications of block chain technology and related concepts.
VIMEO 63502573 Price has changed since then, but still a good video